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Sex hormones - ménage à trois

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Sex hormones - ménage à trois

Hormones - from the ancient Greek to set in motion, excite, drive - are messenger substances that are formed by the body and secreted endocrine, distribute in the body via the bloodstream to perform their effect at certain target organs, which have the corresponding hormone receptors [3, 8.9, 15.3, 23.1].

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Together, they control various mechanisms, regulatory circuits and activities of the body such as metabolism, energy balance, growth, the female cycle, sexual development, circadian rhythms such as sleep and food intake, adaptation to anxiety and stress and some more [3, 8.9, 19, 23.1].

The simplest differentiation of hormones can be made by their solubility. There are water-soluble and fat-soluble hormones. An important class of the fat-soluble hormones are the steroid hormones, to which the sex hormones belong. [23.1, 23.4-6]

Sexual hormones have a considerable influence on human life, human appearance, individual being and on interpersonal encounters. Life - seen from the perspective of sex hormones - revolves around finding a partner, fertility, pregnancy and offspring. In return, they make people beautiful, smart, sexy, vital and happy. The fact that humans can be free, transform and use this potential for their growth, vitality or liveliness and an 'expanded' sexuality is another matter. [8.1, 23.3, 20.7, 26]

The sex hormones are converted from their original substance, cholesterol, among other things, via various pathways first via a form of progesterone into androgens.
The androgens are then either available to the body
or metabolised via 5alpha-reductase to dihydroxytestosterone (DHT)
or transformed via aromatase to estrogens. [23.2, 23.3, 23.5-7, 23.9]

The production of sex hormones is controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary regulatory circuit via the gonadotropins LH the luteinising hormone and FSH the follicle-stimulating hormone. It is carried out by the gonads, the adrenal cortex (NNR), the brain, the fatty tissue and the vessels, among others. Among other things, it is involved in or dependent on the function of the thyroid gland, fat or energy metabolism, sugar metabolism, receptor sensitivity or activity as well as nutrition and physical exercise. [8.9, 13.3, 18, 19, 23.8]

There are three types of sex hormones in human beings: Estrogens, progestins and androgens. They all are produced by both the female and male organism. Decisive for the respective physiology and the individual well-being is the balance between these three hormones. n. [8.9, 19, 20.6, 20.7]

In principle, each hormone has the same mode of action and the same tasks in both the female and the male organism. It is only the level and duration of the respective level that makes typical female or male characteristics appear, some of which are reversible and some of which are not. In both sexes, however, all three hormones are of essential importance! [8.9, 9, 14, 15.1,19]

Androgens, for example, promote fat loss, presence and vitality as well as sexual desire, sensation and willingness as well as the ability to orgasm as well as its satiation in both men and women.
Progesterone is the precursor for androgens and for estrogens in both sexes.
Estrogens, in turn, favour the female phenotype in both sexes as well as the water balance in the tissues.
[15.1, 16, 23.13, 20.1, 20.7, 18, 19]

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While estrogen is considered the hormone of beauty, progesterone represents wisdom and androgens represent strength [20.6, 25]

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The sex hormones are subject to circadian and seasonal rhythms, they adapt to and likewise affect the respective life circumstances such as stress or holidays, surrounding attractiveness factors and the respective phase of life. Women also have a pronounced, roughly monthly rhythm of their sex hormone balance. [19]

Dehydroandroepisterone (DHEA) is the most common steroid hormone in the human organism. It can behave both estrogenically and androgenically and is the precursor of both. It is formed 70% in the NNR in the female organism, 30% in the ovaries and 100% in the NNR in the male organism. The normal values in women are about 50% lower than in men.
In the USA, Switzerland and Austria, DHEA receives attention therapeutically and as a food supplement with anti-age effect. [15.1, 15.2, 20.7]

Estrogens or estrogens have the weightiest share in the expression of femininity and its rhythms.
The word estrogen comes from the Greek from oĩstros, the passion or the sting and -gen,exciting and could be rendered as the passion exciting or the passionately inciting.

Estrogens or estrogens exist in the human organism in three different main natural forms: as estradiol (E2), as estrone (E1) and as estriol (E3).
Estradiol is the dominant hormone during a woman's fertile years. Its effectiveness is ten times as potent as estrone and eighty times as potent as estriol. While estrone predominates during menopause, estriol is mainly present during pregnancy. [20.1, 23.11-13]

Gestagens are alsoluteal orpregnancy hormones called.
When progestin is spoken of as a natural hormone in humans, this refers exclusively to progesterone. If the word progestagen is not further differentiated, it usually (also) refers to the synthesised hormones that resemble progesterone and are used as contraceptives or in hormone replacement therapy (HRT/HRT). Other names for synthetically produced progestins are progestins, progestativa and progestogens. [6.2, 9, 13.1, 16]

The progesterone extracted from the yam root and referred to as natural is also produced in the laboratory, but it is identicalto the body's own hormonewhich is why no side effects are to be expected. This progesterone, which is identical to the human organism, is also called natural, nature-identical, body-identical or micronised. [6.2, 8.8, 9, 13.1, 24, 25]

Progesterone to Latin progestum a derivative of pro-gerere, carrying forward, carrying out, could be translated as carrying forwardor supporting being pregnant.

Progesterone prepares the uterine lining for the implantation of a fertilised egg, ensures during pregnancy that the embryo is supplied with nutrients and that no further follicle matures or jumps. It is the counterbalance in the scales to the estrogen, prepares the body for pregnancy together with the estrogen and causes the body temperature to rise by 0.4 to 0.6 degrees Celsius at the end of the cycle. [9, 23.1]

As a prohormone, progesterone is the precursor of some other hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone and androgens. It stimulates the formation of the sex hormones. [16, 23.2, 23.14, 23.19]

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Progesterone as the final stage is formed in the female organism primarily by the ovum that has sprung from the ovary, the so-called corpus luteum, and during pregnancy by the placenta.

Progesterone stimulates the formation of the sex hormones.

Androgens, from andros, the man and -gen, making, exciting thus making a man, are sex hormones that have the weightiest part in the formation of masculinity.
It is interesting that androgens are formed from the so-called female hormone progesterone or from DHEA, which is not gender-specific in its functioning, and are at the same time the precursor of all hormones designated as female.
Androgens are present in the human organism as DHEA, testosterone, androstenedione, androstenediol, androsterone and as dihydrotestosterone (DHT), whereby DHT is considered the most potent of all. [23.9, 23.20]
Androgens stand for vitality, activity, creativity, presence, potency, clear thinking, desire for sex as well as fat and muscle loss [20.7, 18, 19].
Increased androgen production does not necessarily have to lead to androgenisation, but can equally cause hyperestrogenisation due to aromatase [1, 17, 18].

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Artificial contraceptives that cause anovulation reduce the production of sex hormones, especially progesterone; the ovary is almost shut down.
In addition, with the increased occurrence of xenoestrogens or endocrine disruptors (ED/EDC) in groundwater, food, consumer goods and commodities, estrogenic substances are increasingly entering the human organism.
There are two approaches to the effects of these two occurrences in the literature:
On the one hand, it is assumed that they lead, firstly, to a generally reduced sex hormone production in women and, secondly, in both sexes, to a progesterone deficiency or an oestrogen dominance with a reduced androgen production. [6.2, 8.9] 
On the other hand, there is the view that the suppression of the production of sex hormones in the female organism results in a surplus of androgens, which tends to masculinise women. In men, on the other hand, there is a tendency towards estrogenisation, a feminisation. This state of affairs is called gender diffusion. [14]

In summary, it could be argued that:

  1. The deficiency of one of the sex hormones initially makes the effect of at least one of the others more prominent. Thus, a pattern of symptoms appears which results from both the dominance of one and the deficiency of the other.
  2. A sex hormone dominance or deficiency is primarily to be evaluated as relative to the other two sex hormone levels.
  3. .
  4. If no artificial hormones are substituted, an estrogen deficiency tends to be rare, especially in the fertile or non-menopausal years of women and men, because both androgens and progesterone can and are converted into estrogens.
  5. In this context, progesterone dominance is rather unlikely to occur, especially since progesterone only reaches higher levels during the reproductive years of the woman at the second half of the cycle (unless she uses hormonal contraception) and during pregnancy. In men, the main part of progesterone is converted into androgen.
  6. At present, most female complaints indicate a progesterone deficiency, which is often accompanied by a relative dominance of the estrogens.
  7. A dominance of androgens (women) very probably coincides with further functional disorders, e.g. of the ovaries or the NNR, which can be caused by stress, tumours or cysts, for example. It exists 'only' as a relative androgen dominance to the estrogen and can be favoured by hormonal contraceptives or HRT.

[4.1, 4.2, 6.2, 8.5, 8.9, 15.1, 17, 18, 19, 20.1, 24]

The following table gives an overview of the mode of action of the sex hormones. The data refer to a balanced sex hormone level. If they are not explicitly indicated for women or men, they refer to both sexes.
As many of the complex natural and synthetic hormonal mechanisms of action have not yet been fully clarified, the literature researched does not provide clear but sometimes contradictory information on some symptoms as to whether they are due to a deficiency or a dominance or with which hormone the symptoms are exactly related.

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Abbreviations:

T-IMP: inhibits MMP, regenerates collagen [8.2]

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MMP: matrix metalloproteinase: degrades collagen, among other things in wound healing,
tumour growth, skin ageing [8.2, 8.10, 23.2]

NFB: nuclear factor cap: anti-inflammatory [8.2]

.

PC, EPC: progenitor cells, endothelial progenitor cells: vascular wall repair cells
[18]

NO: nitric oxide, vaginal blood flow to erectile tissue and
lubrication [20.1]

VIP: Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, vaginal blood flow to the
erectile tissue and lubrication [20.1]

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Estrogen

Progesterone

Androgen

TIES

Smooth skin due to water and protein retention in skin and tissue

.

Favourable influence on skin regeneration via T-IMP, MMP and NFB

.

diuretic: decongests and drains tissue

.

Skin lubrication, skin thickness

.

Beard and body hair (≠head hair!)

Good blood supply, vital, moist mucous membranes

.

Prepares uterine mucosa for egg implantation

favourable influence on uterine mucosa

.

Inhibits boil breakdown (osteoclast inhibition)

.

Unfavourable influence on cartilage tissue

.

Promotes bone formation and bone density (osteoblast activation)

.

Osteoclast inhibition and osteoblast activation

.

Favourable influence on cartilage tissue.

APPEARANCE

Formation and maintenance of primary and secondary female sexual characteristics

.

Female fat distribution pattern on hips, buttocks, thighs, so-called pear type

.

Build-up of depot fat, e.g. as reserved fat for breastfeeding

.

Education and maintenance of primary and secondary male sexual characteristics

.

Male fat distribution pattern on abdomen and waist, so-called apple type

.

STUFF CHANGE

Favourable influence on hunger pangs, food intake and energy metabolism via the leptin-oestrogen cycle

.

favourable influence on blood sugar levels via insulin sensitivity of the cells and glucose tolerance

.

balances HDL and LDL/lipid STW

Helps convert fat into energy and reduces adipose tissue

.

Regulates blood sugar, blood clotting and has an effect on thyroid hormones

.

Nutrient supply of the embryo

.

Reduces depot fat

.

builds muscle strength and mass

.

Favourable influence on mammary gland tissue

.

anabolic: Fat loss and muscle gain

.

Favourable influence on energy, sugar, protein and fat metabolism

.

Decreased feeling of hunger via leptin

.
PSYCHIC EFFECT

Mood-lifting, euphoric

.

Activity

Stimulates dopamine, serotonin, glutamic acid, noradrenaline

, among others.

female thinking and feeling

.

Empathy, social commitment

.

Linguistic aptitude

.

More attractiveness and affairs

.

Protection against psychosis

.

Activity

antidepressive

calming, anxiety-relieving

.

Nesting and breeding behaviour

.

Prolongs relationships

.

Relaxation and confidence during pregnancy

.

Dulling, soporific to narcotic

.

Nerve regeneration

.

Mood-boosting

.

Vitality, activity, drive

.

clear focused thinking

.

spatial imagination

.

Lust for life

.

Presence anddecisiveness/so-called 'aggressiveness'

.

Creativity

.

Testosterone levels correlate proportionally with life expectancy

.

=> so-called anti-age potential

.
BLOOD & VESSELS

dilates arteries, constricts veins

.

Lowering blood pressure, cardioprotective

.

Protects the arteries against arteriosclerosis

.

 

constricts arteries, dilates veins

.

Reduces blood clotting

.

The formation of erythrocytes by erythropoietin and stimulation of the bone marrow

.

Stimulates PC and EPC thereby cardio- and vasoprotective

.

Men: Testosterone levels correlate antiproportionally with risk of cardiovascular disease

.
UROGENITALTRAKT

Fertility

Water retention in the tissues especially when dominated by progesterone

.

Woman: egg maturation, ovulation, blood flow to the uterus, cycle

.

Fertility

.

Ovulation and implantation of the fertilised egg

.

Prevents maturation and implantation of another egg during pregnancy

.

Fertility

supplies and stimulates erectile tissue muscle cells in the clitoris and penis

.

Man: spermiogenesis, potency

.
SEX

stimulates NO, VIP, dopamine and serotonin during sex

.

Increases libido

.

Blood flow and lubrication during sexual arousal

.

Increases sexual touch sensitivity, receptivity and willingness

.

Low progesterone levels increase sexual desire, high ones decrease it

.

Feeling of reward, sleepiness, relaxation, security after orgasm

.

stimulates NO

.

Increases libido, sexual desire and craving

.

sexual fantasies

.

Tumescent bodies (clitoris, labia and penis) fill and sensitise

.

Increases sexual arousal

.

Orgasm ability and intensity.

 [7.1, 7.2, 8.1-8,  20.1, 20.7, 9, 18]

 

Sources, 23.07.17:

1               https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/55823/Oestrogenmangel-macht-
                 Maenner-dicker

2               http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/343/bfr_bewertet_untersuchungen_
                 zu_hormonaehnlichen_wirkungen_von_in_natuerlichen_
                 mineralwaessern_vorkommenden_substanzen.pdf

3               http://www1.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/d31/31.htm

4               http://www.dr-neidert.de/texte/239-estradiol-oestradiol-das-hormon-fuer-
                 haut-haare-und-gehirn

5               http://www.endokrinologikum.com/fileadmin/user_upload/Labor/
                 Downloadcenter/Prof._Keck_
                 Hyperandrogenismus_Springer_Medizin.12.2012.pdf

6.1            http://www.femininundfit.de/content/verdirbt-die-pille-dauerhaft-die-lust-
                auf-sex-ja-moeglich-ist-es

6.2            http://www.femininundfit.de/content/yamswurzel-das-vergessene-
                 naturheilmittel-fuer-frauen/yamsgel-wechseljahre-und

7.1            https://www.frauenaerzte-im-netz.de/de_koerperliche-veraenderungen-
                 auswirkungen-auf-den-koerper_255.html

7.2            https://www.frauenaerzte-im-netz.de/de_koerperliche-veraenderungen-
                 die-veraenderungen-im-einzelnen_256.html

8.1            http://www.frauenaerztin-gruber.at/hormone_weibliche_vitalitaet.html

8.2            http://www.frauenaerztin-gruber.at/haut_hormone.html

8.3            http://www.frauenaerztin-gruber.at/haarausfall.html

8.4            http://www.frauenaerztin-gruber.at/progesteron_gestagen.html

8.5            http://www.frauenaerztin-gruber.at/koerpergwicht.html

8.6            http://www.frauenaerztin-gruber.at/empfngnisverhutung_pille.html

8.7            http://www.frauenaerztin-gruber.at/fettstoffwechsel_hormone.html

8.8            http://www.frauenaerztin-gruber.at/isoflavone.html

9               http://www.frauennaturheilkunde.de/upload/pdf/progesteron.pdf

10             https://idw-online.de/de/news356827

11             http://www.initiative.cc/Artikel/2010_08_27_antibabypille.htm

12             https://www.kade.de/indikationsgebiete/gynaekologie/hormonmangel/

13.1          http://www.kinderwunschhilfe.de/index.php?id=413

13.2          http://www.kinderwunschhilfe.de/index.php?id=165

13.3          http://www.kinderwunschhilfe.de/index.php?id=166

14             http://www.maennerarzt-linz.at/startseite_maennerarzt/der-mann-und-
                 seine-hormone/mann-und-antibabypille/

15.1          http://www.mueller-tyl.at/hormone-und-ihre-wirkung/testosteron-bei-
                der-frau/index.html

15.2          http://www.mueller-tyl.at/hormone-und-ihre-wirkung/
                 dhea---dehydroepiandrosteron/index.html

15.3          http://www.mueller-tyl.at/hormone-und-ihre-wirkung/index.html

16             http://www.netdoktor.de/Diagnostik+Behandlungen/Laborwerte/
                 Progesteron-1429.html

17             http://www.pharmazeutische-zeitung.de/index.php?id=medizin1_20_2005

18             http://www.porst-hamburg.de/spezielle-andrologie/testosteron.html

19             http://potenzdoktor.de/testosteron-bei-frauen/

20.1          http://www.sexmedpedia.com/hormone-im-weiblichen-koerper/

20.2          http://www.sexmedpedia.com/sexuelle-attraktivitaet/ attraktivität

20.3          http://www.sexmedpedia.com/sex-als-bindungsfaktor/

20.4          http://www.sexmedpedia.com/erektionsstoerungen-rezeptpflichtige-
                 therapie-pde5-hemmer/

20.5          http://www.sexmedpedia.com/sexuelles-verlangen-bei-der-frau-
                 stoerfaktoren/

20.6          http://www.sexmedpedia.com/das-geheimarchiv-des-lebens/

20.7          http://www.sexmedpedia.com/beherrscht-von-hormonen/

21             http://www.spiegel.de/gesundheit/diagnose/bund-studie-viele-kosmetika-
                 enthalten-hormonell-wirksame-stoffe-a-912768.html

22             http://www.toxikologie.de/fileadmin/user_upload/GT/Wissenschaftliche_
                 Ausarbeitungen/2004/XENO-Oestrogene.pdf

23.1          https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormon

23.2          https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progesteron

23.3          https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromatase

23.4          https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steroide

23.5          https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steroidhormon

23.6          https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholesterin

23.7          https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fettstoffwechsel

23.8          https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steroid-5α-Reduktase

23.9          https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dehydroepiandrosteron

23.10        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estradiol

23.11        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estron

23.12        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estriol

23.13        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testosteron

23.14        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epitestosteron

23.15        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Androsteron

23.16        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Androstendion

23.17        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dehydroepiandrosteron

23.18        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestagene

23.19        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix-Metalloproteasen

23.20        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Androgene

24             https://www.netzwerk-frauengesundheit.com/progesteron-das-hormon-
                 der-weisheit-richtig-einsetzen/

25             http://www.phytohormone.ch/ph/aktuell/phytohormone.asp?navid=3

26             https://upvs.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/das-tao-der-sexualitaet.pdf 

 

 

 

 



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